Wilderness and Advocacy
How can you protect wild areas and maintain bicycle access? What should you do when confronted with a Wilderness proposal that includes areas with valuable singletrack?
IMBA suggests bicycle advocates focus on four options when Wilderness is proposed. You may choose to focus on one option, or develop a proposal using a mix of these four options:
- Acceptable Wilderness
- Boundary Adjustments
- Non-Wilderness Corridors or Cherry-Stemmed Trails
- Companion Designations
Each of these tools are examined in more detail in the sections that follow.
Another option available to bicycle activists is to accept part or all of a Wilderness designation. This can often be a wise course of action. Many proposed Wilderness areas do not have trails popular or suitable for bicycling. Often these places are remote and extremely rugged, and sometimes have no trails whatsoever. Wilderness can be the best designation. Bicycle activists should examine the resource use and preservation values of each proposed area and decide as individuals and as groups on a position for each place.
Unqualified support for particular Wilderness areas appears to be a good political tactic. Bicycling is a quiet, non-motorized, low-impact activity and the conservation movement ought to (and usually does) accept bicycling as a good use of land. The Wilderness issue has divided bicyclists and conservation activists. When cyclists support Wilderness, it builds our relationship with conservationists, and this can help us to gain access to other, more significant trails and landscapes.
The geographic boundary of a Wilderness area is perhaps the single most important aspect of a Wilderness designation. In nearly every case, arguments ensue over boundaries among people with differing interests and concerns. Congress has often responded by excluding areas, or portions of areas, which have high opportunities for oil and gas development, logging, motorized recreation and other uses that are not permitted in designated Wilderness. Wilderness proponents understand this dynamic and often engage in negotiations with land users to draw boundaries that will not cause substantial political opposition.
The same processes can occur for bicycling. Consider the idea of boundary adjustments to be a process of giving a little to get a little. You may give up a trail or area of little recreational value to mountain bikers to protect a trail or area with substantial riding value. Be realistic in understanding that this compromise will likely be necessary to create a viable Wilderness proposal. Wilderness advocates will be giving up a boundary adjustment so they can protect another area.
Probability of Success: Boundary negotiations are more likely to succeed where the land in question is at the edge and is a small percentage of the proposed Wilderness. For bicycling access, it is also important to demonstrate that the area we want to exclude includes a trail that is already significant for bicycling, or holds the potential for developing a trail that will become important to biking. The political reality is that we should not expect to succeed in a boundary negotiation if all we can offer is a vague idea that someday a piece of land might be nice to ride.
Non-Wilderness Corridors or Cherry-Stemmed Trails
Corridors and cherry stems (collectively Corridors) refer to the practice of defining Wilderness areas to allow non-Wilderness uses to continue on the edge of, or in small area surrounded by Wilderness. Corridors are often used in Wilderness to allow continued access for motorized use, mining, electricity generation and transmission facilities, airstrips, water management and ingress and egress to private property inholdings. A Corridor could also be used to allow continued mountain bike access.
Corridors are used in Wilderness areas managed by all of the agencies that manage Wilderness. Corridors offer flexible management because the trail can be moved in response to natural disasters, reroutes and other unforeseen occurrences. Generally Corridors are just shown on the maps, however, the language in the Wilderness bill could ask for non-Wilderness designation on the trail name itself and 50 feet to either side and be shown on the accompanying map.
Preserving mountain bike access with a Corridor provides recreational opportunities that have minimal impact on the Wilderness area surrounding the trail, while protecting public lands.
Probability of Success: The main advantage of a non-Wilderness corridor or a cherry-stemmed trail is that it doesn't take away a lot of land; only a few acres are effected. This in theory should make it a very enticing negotiation tactic for mountain bike advocates. The moveable nature of the corridor protects it from future unforeseen changes in route.
Wilderness designation is not the only way to protect land. Congress has used a variety of designations to protect lands for recreational, historical and conservation purposes. Congress has designated lands as national parks, national monuments, national seashores, national conservation areas, national recreation areas, national scenic areas, national wildlife refuges and many other titles. This idea is not new. Many of these designations predate the Wilderness Act and actually blazed the trail for it.
Wilderness supporters advocate for Wilderness designation because they feel it is the most effective. In some cases they may be correct, but legislation for other designations can be drafted to fall anywhere along the preservation spectrum and made to fit the needs and desires of the local people.
If you support a non-Wilderness designation, your proposal should state what management rules would apply within the new area. You can even suggest language that would be in the law designating the area or in the official management plan developed after designation. You may also wish to investigate whether other user group(s) would back your proposal and present it with their support.
For further information about companion designations please see our Companion Designation Toolkit.
To find a solution for a particular piece of land, you need a detailed understanding of the area. Volunteers must conduct research, talk with appropriate people, especially land managers, and visit each place to get a better idea for which alternative is best. Groups benefit from having more than one person evaluate each area. After these field investigations, research and observations will need to be compiled and a discussion should be held to formulate a position on each area in question.
Each volunteer who visits these Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) should ascertain whether or not the area is suitable or popular for mountain bicycling, and make judgments about what positions IMBA and local organizations should take. Final decision-making by IMBA and the local organization should involve the field investigators.
Here is a list of information you should consider obtaining before your trip and bring with you on your field investigation:
- Topographic maps: "Topo" maps are necessary to accurately define boundaries and they will greatly assist you when you visit the area.
- Wilderness proposal: Try to obtain a copy of the Wilderness proposal.
- Agency information and recommendation: Inquire with the relevant agency, usually the Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management, and request the information they have on the area. Be aware that the conservationists and agency may disagree about boundaries. Become familiar with the different boundaries proposed and examine the maps to see how those differences affect trail access.
- Recreation guidebooks: Do any recreation guidebooks cover this place? Do they recommend any bicycling in the area?
In the field and afterward, try to answer the following questions for each area. If you are unsure, take your best guess. Some of the questions are simply a matter of opinion.
- Do any mountain bike trails in the proposed area appear in guidebooks or on recreation maps?
- Does mountain biking currently occur within the boundaries of the area? If so, how much? On what trails?
- Are there existing two-track or singletrack trails that are suitable for mountain biking?
- If there is riding currently occurring, is it suitable for: beginners, intermediates, advanced, or only expert riders?
- Do you agree with the assertions in the conservationists' Wilderness proposal? Are there any resources or human developments not mentioned in the conservationists' proposal? Have they chosen a suitable boundary?
- Do you think that the area is meets the basic qualifications for Wilderness designation? (See the definition in Chapter 2)
- Do you think the area should be designated Wilderness? Would you support Wilderness if there were boundary adjustments for particular biking trails? Should it receive some other designation?
- Does the local business community currently benefit from mountain bikers?
- Are there threatened, endangered, or rare native species near trails in the area? Wilderness and other land protection proposals should always protect these resources.
Formulating a Position
To successfully advocate anything, you must first have a position and a goal. Group positions and goals have much more power and advocacy is very difficult when people of similar viewpoints have different positions. When approaching Wilderness issues, mountain bikers should always try to formulate group positions and goals to speak with one united voice.
To formulate a position, bicyclists who know and care about proposed Wilderness areas need to meet and decide how to approach the issue. This meeting should occur after people have adequately investigated each area proposed for Wilderness. For each area, the group needs to choose which outcome they want: Wilderness, Wilderness with boundary adjustments, non-Wilderness trail corridors, and Companions. This decision-making may be difficult process. It will require much communication, and people will need to think about both long-term and short-term consequences.
The positions adopted can be flexible. You might publicly state that you seek an alternative to Wilderness for this area, but you might have a private decision that you could also accept Wilderness with boundary changes. Know your public position, your bottom line, and your fallback position. If the area is not of great importance to mountain bikers, you can adopt a formal "neutral" position. Neutrality can also buy you the time to create your own proposal.
If you desire an outcome other than Wilderness designation, you will benefit from development of a formal proposal. Your proposal can state what boundary changes are needed, or what companion designation is desirable. If you support an companion designation, your proposal should state what management rules would apply within the new area. You can even suggest language that would be in the law designating the area or in the official management plan developed after designation. You may also wish to investigate whether other use group(s) would back your proposal and present it with their support.
After formulating a position on each proposed Wilderness area, bicycling advocates should negotiate with Wilderness proponents, and other interest groups, to see if common ground can be reached. Sometimes we can find win-win solutions that greatly enhance the likelihood of issue resolution.
When negotiating, you must come to the table with an honest and open mind, ready to listen to the other parties' viewpoints. You must respect other parties as you would have them respect you. Listening and respect are more likely to produce successful outcomes than stubborn insistence on unrealistic viewpoints. Taking this into account, though, you shouldn't refrain from asserting your own viewpoint and objectives. If negotiation is done well it will build respect for bicycling and bicyclists.
When entering negotiation, don't expect immediate results. Occasionally, a single session suffices, but more often it takes several meetings. Sometimes, it becomes a grueling, long process.
Do not feel obligated to come to agreement. If you do agree you will have greater chance of success, but there is no guarantee of success, nor is it always necessary. Other people and forces outside the negotiation process can influence votes of Congress. Your negotiation with others can only influence, not control, the Congress members' votes.
In some cases you may find that your best attempts at forming relationships and coalitions fall on deaf ears. If no one is willing to cooperate or make even small concessions for mountain bikers, you may certainly consider formally opposing the Wilderness proposal. This is a position many mountain bikers may be hesitant to take because of their environmental beliefs, but certain situations can necessitate it. Use your opposition to push for negotiations and a revised proposal that has a better chance of being passed into law. Keeping a professional open dialogue, even though you may agree to disagree, is most important. It is critical that cyclists have a seat at the table and are part of the negotiations. Once the door is shut and you have alienated the decision makers, you will find it next to impossible to affect change.
Lobbying Your Position
Whether you have reached a mutually beneficial position with Wilderness advocates or you are presenting your own alternative you will need to get that information into the hands of decision makers and decision influencers. The final decision on Wilderness designation is in the hands of U.S. Congress, but local government officials and local business interests heavily influence their decisions.
Gaining support for your proposal from county commissioners is a great place to start. County commissioners are easy to approach. As you gear up your campaign, find a way to have one-on-one conversations with them. For example invite them to have a cup of coffee, go on a ride or even hike the area in question. You will need to show the county commissioners that a substantial number of local residents support your position with petition signatures or voter letters.
Your campaign to influence the county is an indirect route to influencing your members of Congress. The political efforts you employ at the local level will translate to effective politics at the state and national levels as well.
Talking to members of your state's legislature can also be very beneficial. One effective strategy is to ask the state legislature to pass a resolution regarding its stance on additional Wilderness areas that also references mountain bikes. West Virginia's state legislature has passed such a reference expressing its concern over Wilderness' impact on recreation. This isn't a binding law, but it certainly sends an important message to members of the U.S. Congress.
Another important group are local business interest such as tourism bureaus and bicycle companies and shops. They can be powerful allies and help to spread the word to other cyclists.
The final outcome of any Wilderness proposal will depend on Congress. Only Congress can designate Wilderness. Ideally, you will obtain the support of mountain bike access from both state senators and of the representative(s) whose district(s) includes the areas being considered for Wilderness.
Your objective with each Congress member should be to not only gain his or her support for your position, but also to get a commitment that he or she will support that position in a bill. If just one of the three critical members (one of the senators or the local representative) makes this commitment, you have an excellent chance of success.
Generally, before talking to a member of Congress, garner all the support you can, and muster facts and arguments in support of your position. This issue is not a personal issue for them, it is about policy. Explain why this is good for thousands of people, how it will benefit the local or regional economy and how it will protect the natural environment will help convince them to support your proposal.
Success may be a long time coming. Wilderness proposals do not proceed quickly and it may take several sessions of Congress before a bill passes. After an election, you may need to build trusting working relationships with new elected officials or deal with changing political climates. During periods when little is happening in Congress on the Wilderness bill you're working on, you should occasionally write to your state's Congressional delegation to reiterate your concerns and keep them apprised of any related events or developments.
Some day, the bill you've worked for will pass. When that happens and you succeed, celebrate the win and go riding!
Then be sure to write letters expressing thanks to the Members of Congress, their staff and anyone else you worked with. It is important to also write courteous, appreciative letters to those with whom you disagreed. Such communication will be important in the long run.